Electric charge as an explicit energy form does not exist in the atomic world
In the popular series available on Internet ”How stuff works” there has earlier been an article about how an atom is build up. It is easy to follow the description but when coming to the electron the author suddenly turns to more fluffy words; ”there are tiny little things giving the electron a negative electric charge”, giving the impression that the author did doubt that electrical charge exists.
A good example is the energy in atoms of potassium, which in our heart are charged with energy from a decaying isotope which ends to exist, and generates energy and only argon is left. But we can observe electric voltage with electrodes on the skin and register EKG. The voltage we measure is dependent of what metal we are using for the electrode. Different metals have various electric potential. And we need to have two skin electrodes to observe the difference voltage between them. There is no absolute reference.
Electric current in a metal wire, as we measure it with a current meter in Amperes, we know it creates a magnetic field. Current is basically a movement of energy. But energy movement from one atom to next atom is just that.
A globe for instance made of stone, that is rotating around its own axis, creates a magnetic field. Every atom in the globe contains energy which are moved in the room at rotation. Every moving particle in the atoms will notice the centrifugal force. If you are rotating a loose bicycle wheel, preferably without a tire, you can easily observe that it is interacting with the magnetic field around our earth.
We use the terms “Volt” and “Ampere” for observation of an electric source. It can be a simple dry cell battery, a cloud in the sky in thunderstorms, a globe for testing devices to not be destroyed of high voltages or a capacitor just holding a given charge. Voltage is measured with a device with high resistance to not disturb the source and measuring current with a low resistance. But in both cases measuring voltage and current we are measuring on the total energy content in a determined unit.
The old theories of chemical reasons for creating osmotic pressure can be forgotten. Instead it is the magnetic field that surrounds every atom which is used. It repels other atoms which is a good start. In a gas or liquid the atoms are lined up with the earth magnetic field. But to be useful every type of element must have its own, unique marks to the magnetic field. If an atom has an extra charge of energy, this must also have a unique mark. The markings can be simple and need not to quickly define the atom. It takes time for an atom to move in a gas or liquid.
I suspect that to meet the requirements for osmotic pressure that the magnetic filed surrounding an atom is amplitude modulated. The magnetic field varies from zero to a maximum value but never change direction. I don't know how this modulation is done.
An electron consists of dark materia. If it is just rotating around its own axis (spin) it will not create a magnetic field; but rotation energy is created. There is no energy in dark materia. If it also is moving around a nucleus, an energy is moved and a magnetic field will be created.
A guess can be that the modulation is done when the axis for the electron's circular movement is directed 135 degrees from the rotation axis for the nucleus. With the assumption, that the magnetic field generated in the circular area inside the electron's path is not equally distributed in the whole area but stronger near the electron, an amplitude modulation can be possible. The amplitude modulation can be less than 100 percent meaning that the magnetic field around the atom varies from a minimum value to a maximum value, probably following a sinus function, but never change direction. Atoms with a specific modulated frequency will repel other atoms with the same frequency. Atoms with other frequencies will not be effected.
Two forms of hydrogen measured
In an entertainment program on TV in Sweden, where people can send in artful questions to be answered by a panel composite of people from Lund's University in Sweden. The lady handling physic questions could at the end of the program not resist to mention that they had detected that there are two types of hydrogen, each with a unique measured frequency that could be received on sensitive radio receivers. Later I have learned that there are four sub orbitals in addition to the basic orbitals for each element. One sub orbital, number two from the core, marks the middle of a band of allowed energy levels. Changes in temperature of an element is handled within that band. Higher temperature will for instance be the reason to an element to enlarge with higher temperatures. Its simply take more space with electrons taking other larger circles. Sub orbitals number one and three set the limits for allowed minimal and maximal energy levels in the band. Sub orbital number two is setting the reference frequency valid for all minor different orbitals within the band. Sub orbital number four is for a high energy case. That sub orbital is used for a high energy exchange. The amplitude modulation suggested above is made with a fixed frequency given from the sub orbitals two and four.
Bindings in molecules
The band with the two sub orbital limits allows not exact amount of energy when for instance connected to another atom to build a molecule. It is not very stable and gives covalent bindings. The high energy exchange only accept energy levels that fit in very well and gives stable, ionic, bindings for molecules. The atom can be in only one state at a time; extra high charged or normal.
Measured potential levels for metals
To directly measure the potential level for a metal is not possible. It can be compared with to measure the energy content in an atom or group of atoms that move freely in the air with no reference to mother earth. How this potential is created, when an atom with extra high energy is knocking on the door to a metal atom, I don't know, but I suspect that the modulated magnetic waves that follows the atom play a roll and that the metal is well or less sensitive for magnetic fields. The measured potential must always be positive or zero. The negative voltages that can be seen in literature are measured with a reference “metal” created with hydrogen.
So we have to accept that electric current in a metal wire is not a flow of negatively charged electrons but instead is an exchange between high levels charged atoms. And it is also working with superconductivity as shown in practice.
Atvidaberg, Sweden 2019-11-28
Author: Olof Nirs